One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.
At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.
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Porto is nearly synonymous to port wine, and also its rich history. The city's historic center and the Alto Douro Wine Region have been listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records
The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 实木成品家具因无木材运输证明被没收 官方称“处罚符合规定” in America.
This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.
The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.
PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.
PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.
3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world
《她》(Her)，由斯派克?琼斯(Spike Jonze)担任编剧兼导演，将浪漫带入了虚拟世界，影片的主人公展开了一场有些疯狂的真正激情之旅。华金?菲尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)扮演的男主角是个令人心酸的孤独小伙子，他爱上了自己智能手机的新操作系统。影片的基本构想有些脆弱，但故事非常华丽地展开，霍伊特?范?霍特玛(Hoyte Van Hoytema)的摄影也很精妙，完美地烘托了菲尼克斯、艾米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和斯嘉丽?约翰逊(Scarlett Johansson)的表演。斯嘉丽?约翰逊在片中扮演的是智能手机操作系统的声音和灵魂。
Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.
4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders
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Both claim to represent the people against foreigners and traitors.
The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.
Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.
5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything
XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.
6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security
Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 棚改10年来全国累计开工3896万套 圆一亿人安居梦 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.
A cheery New Year hold lots of happiness for you!给你特别的祝福，愿新年带给你无边的幸福、如意。
当汤姆?雷文斯克罗夫特(Tom Ravenscroft)在2007年拿到经济与管理学位离开牛津大学(Oxford)的时候，他希望当一名管理顾问。而且他也在实习后收到了奥纬咨询(Oliver Wyman)的录用通知。他说：“除了进入商界，我对从事什么职业没有任何想法，职业在那时候还是一个非常模糊的概念。”
Horowitz, speaking to radio station RTE, said he was keen to keep the new Bond true to the 1950s creation.
Jennifer Lawrence also took home the gong for best actress in a movie for her role in the critical darling Joy.
The dollar value of exports from emerging market countries will rise next year for the first time since 2014, helped by higher commodity prices and modestly stronger demand, it is predicted.
3.Pay no attention to those bow-tied etiquette experts you sometimes see on CNN International, telling you how to behave while in Britain. These people are generally of dubious provenance, normally live in California and tend to peddle advice that is either irrelevant or out of date. For example, they will often say that Britons love queuing and are so fond of apologising that they will often say "sorry" even when something isn't their fault. In reality, Britons are just as likely to jump to the front of a queue and then punch the person behind them for coughing. It all depends on how muggy it is.
7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed
The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.
Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.
《为奴十二年》导演史蒂夫?麦奎因(Steve McQueen)在登台领奖时说：我有点吓到了。然后他微微耸肩，引用片中福音歌曲的歌词，说了句“翻涌吧，约旦河，翻涌吧”("Roll, Jordan, roll")。
The actress who kick-started the exposure of Hollywood moguls who allegedly exploited positions of power to abuse women has branded #MeToo campaigners against sex attackers 'losers'.
8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links
When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.
Lian Ping, chief economist with the Bank of Communications, said rising producer prices may push up consumer prices in the longer term.
This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."
9. NSA collects text messages
— James Ball (@jamesrbuk) January 16, 2014
Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.
10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries
The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.